Dopamine was discovered by Arvid Carlsson and Jils-Ake Hillarp at the Laboratory for Chemical Pharmacology of the National Heart Institute of Sweden, in 1952. It was named Dopamine because it was a monoamine, and its synthetic precursor was 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). Arvid Carlsson won a share of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for showing that dopamine is not just a precursor of noradrenaline and adrenaline, but a neurotransmitter as well.
Monitor Blood pressure,pulse,respiration, ECG and hemodynamic parameters every 5-15 minutes during and after administration. Notify physician if significant changes in vital signs or arrythmias occur at any time.
Monitor urine output frequently throughout administration.Notify if urine output decreases.
Palpate peripheral pulses and asses appearance of extremities routinely.
Potential Nursing Diagnoses for the patient that receiving dopamin are Cardiac output,decreased(indication). Tissue perfusion,alterred (indication)
Formulation and Biochemistry
Dopamine has the chemical formula (C6H3(OH)2-CH2-CH2-NH2). Its chemical name is 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol and it is abbreviated "DA."
Dopamine is biosynthesized in the body (mainly by nervous tissue and adrenal glands) first by the hydration of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-DOPA via the enzyme tyrosine 3-monooxygenase, which is often known by its former name tyrosine hydroxylase, and then by the decarboxylation of DOPA by L-aromatic-amino-acid decarboxylase. In neurons, dopamine is packaged after synthesis into vesicles, which are then released in response to the presynaptic action potential. The inactivation mechanism of neurotransmission are 1) uptake via a specific transporter; 2) enzymatic breakdown; and 3) diffusion. Uptake back to the presynaptic neuron via the dopamine transporter is the major role in the inactivation of dopamine neurotransmission. The recycled dopamine will face either breakdown by an enzyme or be re-packaged into vesicles and reused.